Enacted in March 2013, the Campus Save Act is the most recent, and far reaching, in a long line of laws that protect students from sexual violence and harassment.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 revised federal funding laws to prohibit sex-based discrimination in higher education."No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance…
Initially called the"Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act" and later renamed in memory of slain student Jeanne Clery, this act amended federal financial aid laws to require all participating postsecondary institutions to disclose campus crime statistics and security information.
Established federal legal definitions of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Made funding grants for reducing these crimes available to higher education institutions.
Department of Education Office for Civil Rights (OCR) guidance explored Title IX sexual harassment protections.
"[S]chools need to ensure that employees are trained so that those with authority to address harassment know how to respond appropriately, and other responsible employees know that they are obligated to report harassment to appropriate school officials."
Noting that sexual assault had become an epidemic on college campuses, OCR reiterated that Title IX guarantees all students an education free from sexual harassment and violence. OCR also recommended that"all schools implement preventive education programs" as part of their orientation programs for new students, faculty, and staff.
"These programs should include a discussion of what constitutes sexual harassment and sexual violence, the school's policies and disciplinary procedures, and the consequences of violating these policies."
Amended the Clery Act to mandate extensive"primary prevention and awareness programs" regarding sexual misconduct and related offenses.
Schools must report compliance with the Campus Save Act in their Annual Security Reports.
Non-profit organizations function to achieve social, cultural, political and other non-profit goals. Profit, which nevertheless comes to the account of the organization as a result of its activities, should not be distributed among its participants. Due to the fact that the goals and principles of functioning of non-profit organizations differ from other legal entities, the procedure for their creation is also different.
In the UK, a non-profit organization can be created in the form of a limited warranty company. The entire registration procedure will take only a few hours. You will be required to indicate the purpose of creating a company and collect a package of documents. The company will be created without shareholders and authorized capital. Participants will have to make their contributions, which will act as guarantees and, if necessary, be used for the needs of the organization. The company must have at least one director and one member. Holding annual meetings of members is a prerequisite for the functioning of the company, as is the submission of annual reports to Companies House. Separately, it should be noted that such a company is an independent legal entity that does not depend on the actions of its participants.
In the United States, a nonprofit organization can be incorporated in several forms: as a corporation, limited liability company, unincorporated association, or trust. The main points that must be indicated in the constituent documents of the organization are its non-profitable goals (for example, educational, scientific, charitable, ethical) and the procedure for terminating the organization’s activities, namely the procedure for transferring its property to the state or federal property. In addition to choosing the form of organization, it must be assigned a certain status: a private foundation or a public charitable organization. The status of a public organization is chosen more often, since it provides some advantages in paying taxes.
Nonprofit organizations doing business are required to pay tax at the standard corporate tax rates on business income on income of more than $ 1,000 (per year).
Receiving income from entrepreneurial activity does not in itself question the tax-free status of NPOs. Income earned from performing tax-exempt activities (tuition, theater entrance fees, hospital fees, etc.) is not business income.
Trade and other types of business are considered entrepreneurial activities.
There are several circumstances due to which income cannot be classified as business income. These circumstances and types of income are identified in IRS filing No. 598, Tax on Non-Income Transactions — for example, if income-generating work is done by volunteers (selling donated goods, playing games, bingo).
In the United States, income from activities not related to the primary purpose of charitable organizations is not exempt from income tax. An NPO that must pay tax on income derived from entrepreneurial activities that are not related to the main purpose of the organization and which are ongoing on a permanent basis can reduce taxable income by the amount of costs directly related to the implementation of such activities (expenses, depreciation, etc.). At the same time, an NPO may not lose its preferential tax status, even if it receives significant amounts of such income from (officially undeclared) non-targeted activities.
It’s just that in this case, income from the latter is taxed respectively.
Sometimes, it is rather difficult to cover taxes accured. Many NPOs prefer issuing quick payday loans online to pay for taxes. This procedure doesn’t require any certificates to be confirmed. Besides, such loans may be paid earlier that helps reduce rates. It is convenient to apply for a payday loan online. No need to visit any store. Moreover, the funds are transferred to your banking account within 24 business hours. The maximum loan amount is $1,000 that is equal to annual tax rate for non-profit organizations in the USA.
In Germany, a minimum seven founders are required to create a non-profit organization. Organizations recognized as generally beneficial enjoy special advantages – all their income is exempt from taxes. To obtain the status of a generally useful organization, you need to submit an application to the Ministry of Justice and be verified. In the future, such a check will have to be carried out regularly – once every 3 years. In Germany, non-profit organizations can also engage in economic activity, but this does not have to be the main one.
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